That we can call apparently static arrangements properly, and not metaphorically, rhythmic shows how closely linked rhythm is to immediate experience. If the particular or unique patterning of measures, or rather their content, is taken as rhythmic rather than metrical differentiation, meter may be regarded as the foundation or basis for rhythm. General Character of the Opposition 11 a dance, of a step, of a song, of a speech, of work, of everything which presupposes a continuous activity broken by meter into alternating intervals. It is true that, since cycle is also multiplicity, cycles must be distinguished as individuals and marked as terms in an order of succession. The selection of a particular metrical interpretation can be accomplished through the notational devices of bar line and signature, but the basis for this interpretation lies in our capacity for grouping like objects.
Above this nethermost stratum lies and works another stratum: the periodic alternation of contrast. This task has been undertaken by numerous theorists, and their various solutions need not be reviewed here. Such a durationless instant is precisely this nothing that does not already have a past and that does not belong to sound. Anticipation or openness to the future detracts from weight. In the 1930s, wrote music involving multiple simultaneous periodic rhythms and collaborated with to invent the , the first electronic , in order to perform them.
Likewise, two time-points create something new and undivided a time span or duration ; but whereas part of a duration is a duration, and not a time point, part of an interval is a pitch or, rather, a tone— a pitch that has entered into a tonal-intervallic relationship. In practice, however, Cooper and Meyer are loath to call a metrical accent unaccented or vice versa. It occurs at a timepoint. The conceptual problems that emerge from this split are implicit in any analysis of musical rhythm and are, I think, responsible for much of the confusion that surrounds the topic. The simple alternation of strong and weak, which forms the essence of the rhythmic, is raised to a feeling of form when this is carried to a higher order by two, three, or more gradations of accent. Beginning and ending are not separated from the motion that begins and ends. The movement from beginning to end is a movement from the clear to the diffuse, from attentiveness to inattentiveness.
It then appears that the main end of our thinking is at all times the attainment of some other substantive part than the one from which we have just been dislodged. For instance, the silence that precedes the sound in example 6. Here many a person might perhaps want to know: how is the true Movement of a musical piece to be discerned? The intervening span becomes a continuous passage from one tonal state to another. We speak of the beginning of the sound, but here the beginning of the sound as a durationless instant is not a part of the sound, for there is no part of the sound that is without duration. For James, there can be no discontinuity in perception. The following is a small sampling of opinion. The difference is not that measured durations are temporal and pitch relations are atemporal.
The confusion is between the thought of the things themselves, taken as subjective facts, and the things of which they are aware. However, if past means determinate and complete, then becoming, presence, and potentiality cannot be past. An important consequence emerges in this connection. John Miller has argued that West African music is based on the tension between rhythms, created by the simultaneous sounding of two or more different rhythms, generally one dominant rhythm interacting with one or more independent competing rhythms. Even at middleground levels there is a general lack of conformity between 3. Only when there is duration, and not before there is duration, is there a beginning of duration. And this underlying tone space precedes any particular shape that it may take.
Just as the Zeitgestalt has unity, so too shaped motion in space is in itself closed, that is, it is an undivided motion-process. For this understanding of temporal relations I am indebted, above all, to the work of Alfred North Whitehead. And we may say that the main use of the transitive parts is to lead us from one substantive conclusion to another. From this description, the distinction between meter and rhythm might be regarded as the distinction between abstract and concrete. For example, a person may describe the rhythm of the workday in a certain company or occupation, or the rhythm of life in a certain country or region. From this perspective, events are tenselessly present, or present in the temporally indifferent sense of standing before us in a changeless relationship of succession, patiently awaiting our inspection. Thus, if in example 1.
Shift is a replacement of the tempo of the template. Because meter as measure is so easily assimilated to number, it is especially susceptible to such abstraction. Rather, it seems to afford a kind of immersion in a world of half-recognized bits and pieces, of shadows and doppelgangers, and of uncomfortable disco-ordinations that nonetheless hang together in a tantalizingly ungraspable way. Here, in saying that alpha1 is the strongest beat we mean that alpha1 marks a boundary of the largest span that is given prior to division or, perhaps more accurately, that alpha1 is the point from which we measure this largest span. As in chapter 6, the concepts and terms I use in this attempt to understand the phenomenon of meter have little resonance in the language of current theory. Chopin, for him, might as well have written as in Example 132b.
How does this fact connect with Benadon and Iyer? And by fusing rhythm and meter, Cooper and Meyer conceive an unbroken rhythmic hierarchy that extends from the smallest to the largest articulations with no change in laws of composition. Beginning is not itself this presence and this becoming. Certainly, in the actual performance of music there is no escaping the contingency and indeterminacy that inhere in every temporal act. Thus Taktteile represent a privileged class of equal, periodic durations. This we can compare to the human breath, which according to the inward agitation of the breather can vary greatly in length and nevertheless show an intelligible coursing of life.