Der Wechsel von lateralem Gentransfer zu Sex war ein weiterer Meilenstein. Einige Meilensteine sind dabei am bedeutendsten. Protonenpumpen, Quantenverschränkung und Quantentunnel und die Erzeugung und Nutzung von Elektrizität für Körperfunktionen und Kommunikation. For two and a half billion years, from the very origins of life, single-celled organisms such as bacteria evolved without changing their basic form. This recent contribution builds from several of his previous books related to mitochondria, with a more in-depth analysis of possible evolutionary pathways, notably longer-persisting non-smoker alkaline vents as the missing incubator for pre-life and a start of life's evolutionary processes. The book is sweeping in scope, tackles the most cosmic question, as well as some important earthly questions, is beautifully written, and reads like a page turning mystery thriller. So many discussions theological and biological jump immediately to the conundrum of abiogenesis.
What nobody anticipated was the existence of a third domain of life. That can cause a bit of a detour, but I guess all that can be compensated when you realize how amazingly complex and magical life on earth is whilst reading those details! We have known about this strange state of affairs since the early 1970s, when it first became clear that the mitochondrial genome is so small that it cannot possibly encode most of the proteins found in the mitochondria. To fuel its growth E. Each time history repeats itself, the price goes up. They occupy the same niche.
The biochemist's point of view puts Lane in an exciting position. Spores can pull it off, descending into metabolic dormancy from which they must feel lucky to emerge. Lane's hypothesis is simply the best candidate. It is rooted in the first two revolutions, and specifically in the question: how do the two relate? The author collaborated with Bill Martin in Dusseldorf and Andrew Pomiankowski, a mathematically minded evolutionary geneticist at University College London. I am not familiar with those who worked in the field, nor of their discoveries.
He also openly accepts why his theories can be false or haven't yet been proved with enough evidence. Even the most obvious assumption that all life has arisen on earth alone and without help. If Parakaryon myojinensis is recapitulating eukaryotic evolution, as I suspect, its extremely low population density just one specimen in 15 years of hunting is predictable. This has substantial consequences for human health. Yet evolutionary theory does not predict, from first principles, why life on earth took the course that it did. We do not know why complex life is the way it is, or, for that matter, how life first began.
Furthermore, comparing their different viewpoints will allow you to see the issues more clearly. In the absence of genes or information, certain cell structures, such as membranes and polypeptides, should form spontaneously, so long as there is a continuous supply of reactive precursors — activated amino acids, nucleotides, fatty acids; so long as there is a continuous flux of energy providing the requisite building blocks. The answer, Lane argues, lies in energy: all life on Earth lives off a voltage with the strength of a lightning bolt. Why was this book so important? I'd hesitate to recommend this book to a general audience. If you've ever wondered: Why are we here? To me, reading this book was as adventurous as hiking up a mountain for the first time. And then it can operate startlingly swiftly.
The use of cross-membrane proton gradients to power cells was utterly unanticipated. This is a pure science book that heavily deals with Evolution, Metabolism, Electron Transport chain, Proton Gradient, Thermodynamics etc. And then came the first of three major revolutions that have wracked our view of life in the past half century. One is almost incidental: pumping sodium out of the cell lowers the concentration of sodium within the cell. The author also mathematically proves why it was feasible for a eukaryotic cell to evolve giving rise to a myriad kinds of species than having a monopoly of prokaryotes. We do not know why complex life is the way it is, or, for that matter, how life first began.
More significantly, I think the book suffers from Feynman's ague - when the great American physicist was involved in biology he bemoaned the vast quantity of labels that had to be learned to get anywhere and I found there were plenty of pages where I didn't really understand what Lane was talking about because I had either never come across, or had already forgotten the explanation of yet another tedious term. Chapter two raises two more questions: Why does life conserver energy via protein gradients across membranes? All complex life, from mushrooms to man, shares puzzling features, such as sex, which are unknown in bacteria. The field of molecular biology evolved in the late 1960s. To answer this question Lane considers the three main domains of life now on Earth: bacteria, archea and eukaryotes. Iron rusts when it oxidizes by passing an electron to oxygen. Then comes the part where the author talks about how 'sex' arose, why are there only 2 sexes and the evolutionary benefit of having so.
What I didn't like about this book: - Reasoning in every chapter is repeated several times and got somewhat boring towards the end. Could it be that their mitochondria are better able to support the exertion of migration than function in the harsher environment they would face if they stayed put? Can you look at evolution not through the lens of population genetics but through the lens of biochemistry, specifically, energy. This is the question that this wonderful book aims to answer and in doing so, it links thermodynamics and life, taking you to the great past to the possible origins of the very first life form. He's asking questions that others in his field aren't. All plants, animals, algae, fungi and protists share a common ancestor — the eukaryotes are monophyletic.
They can pass their electrons into a respiratory chain, so long as the acceptor at the other end is a powerful enough oxidant to pull them through. That can cause a bit of a detour, but I guess all that can be compensated when you realize how amazingly complex and magical life on earth is whilst reading those details! Why on earth would the loss of cytochrome c from the mitochondria act as a signal for cell death? There is about the same metabolic versatility in the entire eukaryotic domain — all plants, animals, algae, fungi and protists — as there is in a single bacterial cell. As such, I am lucky enough to appreciate the incredible work in this book. So it seems to me there are two big unknowns at the very heart of biology today: why life evolved in the perplexing way it did, and why cells are powered in such a peculiar fashion. The result is challenging but enlightening.